Blue Ridge Mountains

Blue Ridge Mountains

Sun brightly shining in the sky
Carolina blue sky above
Slowly up Mt. Mitchell
Crystal clear air caressing our faces

Beautiful sea of green trees swaying in the breeze
Mountain ridges rippling into the distance
Blue smoky mountains serenity flooding my spirit
Mysteries giving me my faraway homeland

Misty autumn mountain day
Millions of colorful leaves sparkling like gems
Hundreds of different shaped leaves dancing on the wind
Happy feelings pouring into my soul

Swift wind cutting the colorful leaves from the trees
Soaring on the breeze then fluttering down, sadly
Brisk cold winds blowing over the leaves
Bristly trees sleeping bare

S.Uzmee 2007




Knocking on the door my love is coming
Looking at me with greedy eyes
Cutting through my heart
Reaching touching my hand
Shocking me with your electricity
Floating above the world

Love is like a flying arrow
Love is like a burning ember
Love soaring on currents of romance

Every morning soft lips kissing
Loving voice whispering in my ear
I love you, good morning
Tousling my hair touching my neck
Coming up out of a dream
Waking me up lovingly

Love is like a flying arrow
Love is like a burning ember
Love soaring on currents of romance

Sitting together arms intertwined
Heart beating softly in my chest
Sound of the surf in my ears
Sending me soaring into the sky
Happy days, happy moments
True romance and true love

Love is like a flying arrow
Love is like a burning ember
Love soaring on currents of romance

Misty spring day riding on a bicycle
Riding together with open emotions
Under a shed out of the sudden shower
Embracing waiting for the rain to cease
Talking to each other opening up our hearts
Dreaming of the future a wonderful life together

Love is like a flying arrow
Love is like a burning ember
Love soaring on currents of romance




Union of Mongolian Artists
National Artist and State Prize Winner of the Mongolian People's Republic (M.P.R.)
U. Yadamsuren
Introduction and brief explanations by L. Sonomtseren
Editor B. Sodnom
State Publishing-House Ulan Bator 1967
The national dress of the Mongols has a rich history and an artistic tradition of many centuries. It is closely connected with the way of life of the Mongolian people, with the specific features of their economic system and with the natural conditions of the country. The costumes must meet the most different situations of life, whether, for example, somebody is riding on horseback over the steppe, whether he is sitting at home in his yurt (felt tent), or whether he is dancing at a national festival. The different conditions of climate, too, influence the kind of dresses worn; thus costumes have been developed that are intended for the different seasons of the year. In summer the Mongols wear a light coat or frock, the "Törlök", in autumn and winter a wadded coat, the "Khovontei Dööl", or a lambskin coat, the "Khurgan Dotortoi Dööl", in winter a sheepskin dress reminding of a fur coat, the "Tsagaan Nökhi Dööl".
The age of the wearer, too, is reflected by the dress. The costumes of elderly people are, as a rule, modest and plain, while young people prefer gay, stylish clothes.
The female dress shows differences between the attire of the girls and of married women. The costumes of the latter are decorated and adorned more splendidly.
From remote times the Mongols have worn coats with oblique braid, the "Tashuu Öngertei Dööl", and a coat with straight border, which reminds of a long waistcoat, the "Sadgai Öngertei Dööl". This is confirmed by the costumes from the Hun era, found during excavations in the burial-mounds of Noin Ula. The design of the garments, the combination of colours as well as the decorative ornaments speak of an old culture of the Mongolian people. The materials of which the dresses are made, reveal a connection of the Mongolian culture with the cultures of the neighbouring countries of the East. But, at the same time, the contribution of the Mongols themselves to the art of costumes can be clearly recognized: the national-original character of Mongolian dress. Later, the "Durbölzhin Öngertei Dööl" with rectangular border became very popular. In the course of adaptation to the ever-changing social and economic conditions the national costumes underwent further changes, the ancient traditions, however, have been retained in a refined manner. And up to thepresenttime, the Mongols are wearing the coat with the oblique border, the "Tashuu Öngertei", and the coat with the rectangular border, the "Durbölzhin Öngertei Dööl".
The materials from which the dresses were sewn were either produced by the Mongols themselves, such as "leather, wool, and fur", or they were imported from abroad. Nobody knows when the Mongols started to produce textile fabrics on their own, but it is an established fact that they have been making dresses of silk, cotton fabric, woollen material, and brocades for a very long time already. Some of the fabrics were, especially in the times of the Huns, introduced from other countries of the East. It is self-understood that the garments for the different seasons were made also of different materials. The lining for the winter dresses consisted of sheepskin, goatskin, or wolf's fur, of the pelts of corsacs, lynxes, wolverines, racoons, foxes, and sables. The winter fur coat might have consisted simply of sheepskin, but sometimes it was covered outside with fabric, such as cotton cloth, tussore, silk, brocade, and satin.
Often the white sheepskin was dyed yellow or green and provided with ornaments.
For summer clothes the materials mentioned above were used, but also woollen cloth and velvet. As linings, thin fabrics were used.
As a rule, the dresses were richly adorned. The national artisans created jewelry and ornaments of gold, silver, corals, pearls, and precious stones.
When studying the national costumes the history of a people, the history of its culture and civilization can be seen as though it were materialized. The making of dresses has always been considered an art. There were many genuine masters whose "golden hands" were famous, the garments having been sewn not only by women, but also by men. A tailor had to have comprehensive knowledge and the most different faculties. He was simultaneously an artist and embroiderer, he was able to glue, quilt, and stuff with wadding, he knew the symbolism of the ornaments used on the dresses, the symbolism of the colours and their combination. The symbolism of dress is altogether of great interest. Thus, for example, the heavenward directed peak of a cap resting on a cupola-shaped base symbolizes prosperity and happiness. The eyelet at the upper part of the Sampin of the cap symbolizes the moon, the knot of the Sampin means simplicity and strength, while the lower part of the Sampin, which is called Tav, represents the sun. Below the Tav four strips have their origin, which represent home and family, while 32 narrow strips of lace symbolize the beams of the sun. With most caps the Sampin and the lace strips are of the same colour, usually red or brown.
Embroidery in different styles is also widely applied for adorning the garments: back-stitching, stem-stitching, etc.
Of old tradition are the ornaments on the dresses, each garment displaying a definite and strictly observed type of ornament which, as already said before, has a symbolism entirely of its own. Interesting is the colour scale of Mongolian costume. The national costumes were chiefly brown and dark blue.
As is well known, Mongolia is inhabited by various national groups, such as the Khalka, Buryat, Dörbet, Torgut, Barga, Dariganga, Uzumchin, Bayit, Uryankhaits, Khoton, and Mingat groups, the Sakhchins, Darkhats, Ölöts, and Kazakhs. Of course, the national peculiarities will be reflected by the clothes. The differences between the dresses of the various national groups refer to the design, the colour, the style, and the ornaments. Different are, for example, the borders of the coats, the style of the waistcoats worn over the coats, the trimmings at the edges of the borders, the adornments and ornaments. In the costume of the Khalkha blue and brown are the predominant colours, while the dress of the Buryats shows blue and that of the Khotons clark shades as the chief colours. Almost all nationalities use black velvet for trimming the border and, moreover, a thin strip of black velvet at the extreme edge of the border. However, the style of these trimmings is not uniform: sometimes they are cut rectangularly and sometimes not. The women's waistcoats, "Uuzh", are generally similar to each other, but even their design will differ in detail. Both the Khalkha and the Mingat women are wearing dresses with sleeves full of pleats, but with the Khalkha women the quilted seams on the pleats are arranged horizontally, while with the Mingat women these seams extend vertically. A few men wear coats with slashes as the women do. The differences between the national costumes of the women refer to the ornaments as well.
A few words ought to be said also regarding the coiffure, an important part of the female toilet. The coiffure of the Khalkha and Mingat women is somewhat "wing-shaped"; the hair is plaited into two braids widening at the temples in the form of wings, the width of the wings being greater with the Khalkha women and smaller with the Mingat women, with whom also the ornaments are more modest. Very peculiar is the hair-dress of the Bargas and Darigangas. The women of some national groups don't wear pins in the hair, but instead of them the "Khadlaga".
The Uzumchins and Darigangas are fond of coral ornaments, while the Khalkhas prefer gold ornarments, silver ornaments, and pearls.
Nor does the headdress lack multifariousness. Almost every nationality has a headdress of its own, differing in design, style, and colour from those of the other national groups, and also the ornaments are different, so that there are many kinds of Mongolian caps. In western Mongolia caps of the "Tortsog", "Yuden", and "Zharantai" kinds are widely used, which differ from the headdress of the Khalkhas and Buryats. The Mongols also wear different kinds of boots; the "Naamal Ultai Gutal" are boots with glued-on soles; furthermore we have the "Sholkhotoi Gutal" and the "Khanchin Gutal", the different national groups having different types of lootwear, too. Whereas the Torgut Mongols are wearing boots of the "Tookhuu Gutal" type, the boots of the Buryats are called "Ulsan Gutal". After the National Revolution national costumes changed substantially, they became simpler and more modest.
Studies of the history of dress and costume, their variations and kinds with the various national groups within the framework of one nation will contribute to better understanding the process of cultural evolution, in particular of folk art, and are a valuable aid to ethnographic researches. On the basis of the rich traditions of Mongolian costume the contemporary masters and folk artists are making use of the heritage that has come down to us from many centuries, and are creating new models of national costume.
In the field of investigation into the history of Mongolian costume the national artist of the M. p. R., state prize winner U. Yadamsuren has achieved extraordinary things. From childhood U. Yadamsuren has been interested in folk art and national costumes. Following his elder brother Tchoidashi, U. Yadamsuren, with artistic mastery, has made himself familiar with the skill of the folk artists, artisans, embroiderers, pasters, tailors and all those, whose hands have created those remarkable costumes, and has studied them most exactly. While travelling all over the country U. Yadamsuren has collected valuable material on the history of Mongolian dress and has made a great number of drawings, only part of which is included in this album. It is beyond doubt that this album will be of particular interest to ethnographers and people fond of national costumes, to theatrical men and artisans. The abundance and the high artistic level of execution of Mongolian costumes seems to urge their universal study.




My friends I am from Mongolia. The Mongolian life style is totally different than Europeans, other Asians, Americans, Africans, and South Americans. Mongolia is located in central Asia. There is as wide a range of people in Mongolia as there are types of land. Even now a large percentage of Mongolian people still live in Teepee’s and Gers. The Mongols that live in teepees are the Tsaatans and are also known by many as the “Reindeer People” their lifestyle depends on the reindeer that they have domesticated. In many ways they remind people of the native American Indian. They live in the northern part of Mongolia in Hovsgol Aimag near the Russian border and have a distinctive dialect of their own.
In cities like Ulaanbaatar (Mongolian capital city) people live in apartments and houses that are similar to the ones in American and European cities. On the outskirts of the cities and throughout the countryside people live in the traditional Mongolian home that is called a Ger. Mongolians have been using the Ger for over 2500 years. It has changed and evolved over this time period from a simple structure similar to the teepee to the complex moveable year around home that it is today. In fact the word Ger in the Mongolian language means “Home” it is a very important part of the Mongolian heritage.

(First home was called Urts which means Teepee, over theyears the shape was modified for increased efficiency. )

The Ger is weatherproof and easily transportable constructed using a wooden floor and lattice wall that is easily assembled and disassembled. The Mongolian people that live in the countryside are for the most part nomadic herders that move with the seasons. Some own permanent houses or apartments in one of the cities but most don’t have anything but their Ger.

(Old style Ger)

Their herds consist of camels, horses, yaks or beef cattle, sheep and goats. These nomadic herders move with the seasons, in general they will make major moves four times a year with some minor moves in between depending on graze availability and water. Some of these herding families will only have one Ger a few horses and fifty to a hundred animals. Other more prosperous families will have three to five Gers several trucks, jeeps generators, satellite dishes and thousands of animals.
The Ger is constructed of many parts and comes in up to five different sizes depending on how many people will be living there or how it will be used. The ger consist of a wood floor called a shal that comes in sections. The walls called khana (there can be from two to eleven sections of these depending on the size of the Ger, each section being approximately two and a half meters long) are made from a wood lattice design that allows for strength and flexibility so they can be folded easily. They are built without using any nails or metal fasteners, all joints are connected using rope. (1.Haalga-door, 2.orh-shutter, 3.Ger
4.bagana-post, 5.toono-crown, 6.hana-wall, 7.shal-floor, 8-9 burees-felt. )

The roof is supported by the crown in the center called the toono which looks like a concave wagon wheel with eight windows, the toono is supported in turn by either two, four or six post called bagana that run from the floor to the crown. The number of bagana and the size of the toono is determined by the size or circumference of the Ger. The rafters which are called uni (there can be from 46 up to 88 of these depending on the size of the Ger) lock into holes that are cut into the side of the toono and the other end is wedged into the khana and is locked in place by a rope loop called unii oosor that is attached to the uni.

The exterior covering is made up of four layers. These are; dotuur burees which is a white cotton sheet that will be what you see from the interior of the Ger, esgii burees which is a thick insulation sheet made from felted sheep wool and goat hair, berzeent burees which is a waterproof canvas type sheet and geriin burees a white cotton sheet which finishes off the coverings. These sheets are held in place by ropes. There are four ropes pulled across the top and tied to stakes driven into the ground as well as four more ropes which are wound around the walls of the Ger and tied off to rings anchored in the frame of the Gers haalga or door. The Ger is finished off with a skirt around the bottom called a geriin hayavch which is usually made of a water proof material against which soil is compacted to insulate against winter cold and to help protect from high winds.
When setting up your Ger you want to have a level dry area, then you install the shal then the haalga frame and khana. Then you stand up the toono and bagana after this you insert the uni into the toono and wedge it into the khana and secure it with the unii oosor. You attach these at opposite sides for example as if on a clock you would insert them at 12:00 then 6:00 3:00 then 9:00 and so on until all the uni are hooked up.

(Installing uni from toono to khana)

When building the Ger all the bulky pieces of furniture as well as the cook stove is placed on the floor before installing the walls as they will not fit through the door or haalga after the Ger is finished. The haalga to the Ger is always placed facing south. The cook stove is placed in the center of the Ger with the pipe going up through one of spaces in the toono half of the other spaces in the toono have glass, the other half are open for ventilation and the toono serves as a skylight for the ger. On top of the toono is a shutter called the orh that can be closed with a cord that hangs down through the toono at night or in case it rains, snows, sleets or gets too cold and windy. Even in the coldest winters on the steppe the Ger will keep you warm and alive.
(Finished framework covering is next)

Inside most Gers are arranged in the following manner, if looking at the floor plan of the Ger like a clock then from 11 - 1 is for the homeowners bed (these beds serve as a couch or a daybed in daytime) from 1 - 2 are storage chest or wardrobe, from 2 - 4 another daybed, from 4 - 5:30 is the kitchen area, from 5:30 to 6:30 is the door, from 6:30 - 8 is the sink and storage, from 8 - 10 another daybed and from 10 - 11 is either a chest or a desk. If privacy is desired then a curtain can be hung from the uni to enclose each bed. In the center of the Ger is a low table with short stools as well as the stove that serves a dual purpose as cook stove and heat source. When entering a Ger you always circle around clockwise as this is our tradition, when guest enter a Ger they will sit on the left side of the Ger between the 8 - 10 position and exit clockwise. When visiting people living in Gers if you are wearing a hat do not put it on the bed unless you want to spend the night with them.
(Ger's ceiling)

(Finished Ger)

(Inside Ger)

Written by S.Uzmee
Edited by James Pigg

Some material adapted from B.Sodnom’s Mongolian Wool Gers Dictionary
Pictures and drawings from Mongolian Architecture by N. Tsultem



My Country

Khentii*, Khangai*, Saya* majestic mountain ranges
To the north mountains adorned with forest
Boundless, golden, shimmering blue priceless Gobi
Leading to the south oceans of shifting sand

This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Kherlen**, Onon**, Tuul** crystal clear rivers
Brook, spring, mineral water peoples nourishment
Khovsgol*, Ubs*, Buir*, deep blue lakes
Bubbling springs mineral stream water, nourishing all creatures
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Orhon**, Selenge**, Khohuin** monumental rivers
Under many mountain ridges lie rich mineral treasures
Historic statues and temples, cities and villages
Faraway winding road disappearing in the distance
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Faraway sparkling crystalline snow covered mountain peaks
Cloudless blue sky desolate steppe
Looking distantly at majestic peaks
People soothed by wide open spaces
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Between the mountains and Gobi lie Khalkh’s*** wide country
As a child riding across country
Hunting deer and animals on long trails
Racing horses over hills and down into valleys
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Narrow grasses swaying in the wind
Shimmering mirage’s bringing interest to clear open plain
Conquering hero’s formidable home
Traditional praying at many stone shrines
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Narrow grasses growing in appealing open pasture
Beautiful mountain ranges intertwining into the distance
Moving with the four seasons your choice where to live
Five kinds of grain growing in the fertile soil
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Beautiful mountains our ancestors final resting place
Children and grandchildren’s coming of age
Herds of tavan khoshuu mal**** fill open plains
Mongolian peoples hearts enthralled in their country
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Winters frozen time covered in snow and ice
Shiny crystal sparkling home
Sunny summer time leaves opening flowers blooming
Birds coming from faraway singing songs in this place
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
From Altai* to Khyangan* rich virgin country in between
Mother and fathers destined to live in this place
Golden sunbeams shining serene persevering country
Silver moonbeams shining eternal home
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Ancestors Khunu*****and Cyanibi***** from this country
Invincible country of the Blue Mongols era
Many years accustomed to living here
New Mongolian country covered with a red flag
This is my birthplace,
Mongolian beautiful country
Our birth nation is a lovely country
If enemies come we’ll cast them out
Our country born of revolution prospering
Future new world built with great deeds
D. Natsagdorj 1931-1933
(Khentii, Khangai, Saya*, Altai, Khayngan* Mongolian mountains, Kherlen, Onon, Tuul, Selenge, Orkhon** Mongolian rivers, Khovsgol, Uvs, Buir** Mongolian lakes, Khalkh*** Mongolian main nationality, Tavan khoshuu mal****, five major kinds of animals - horse, camel, sheep, goats and cattle, Khunu, Cyanibi***** BC III century old Mongolian country name.)
Translator:Sodnom Uzmee
Editor:James Pigg
October 2006


Three Wonders of the World

Everything is full of light; all of nature enjoying the sun is truly a wonder
Breathing, to all creatures the blessing of air is truly a wonder
Plants and animals, the nourishing water is truly a wonder
Golden sunbeams spreading sparkling light into millions of places
Animals, humans, plants enjoying the first warmth
It is full of boldness and great energy
Mongolian herders living life under the sun
Strong bodies, healthy faces, people living happily
Sunburned Mongolian people are known throughout the world
Leaves and flowers wanted the beautiful and wonderful sun
Naadam* and parties, holidays celebrated under the sun
Happiness is sunlight
Cold air challenging creature’s lives
People’s bodies fed by the air in the atmosphere
Beneficial immutable air
Mongolian people living on the wide plains in the fresh air
Expanding chest breathing clean air
Long song singing faraway
Ruddy-cheeked brown Mongolian face
Understanding completely, a wise beacon the genius mind
Air, sun, and water those three things always connecting
If arthritis comes, steamy mineral springs relieves
Hygiene, cleanliness, health if wanted wash with water
Hygiene’s great power, water is a necessity
Wide plains spring water, mineral spring water
Curing of disease, illness still remaining
Smart talented minds discovering medical problems cure
Plants, animals, people allaaaaaWanted water, praying for rain
To be conscious of these three unforgettable wonders

(*Naadam is a Mongolian traditional holiday featuring Olympic type competitions in horse racing, wrestling and archery)
D. Natsagdorj 1935

Translator:Sodnom Uzmee
Editor: James Pigg
October 2006


Studying in a Foreign Country

Traveling away from home to study in a foreign place
Fall winds blowing on his face
Grass swaying in the breeze
Blue smoke from his homes chimney receding in the distance
Hundreds of mountains, a thousand rivers inviting
Village and cities people
Young man looking through the window
Chin on fist seeing the world pass by
Absorbing the lessons on his own
Learning a foreign language joyfully
New things different way of life
For him this is like diving for pearls in a deep ocean.
Past and future time comparing
In a millisecond many shooting stars gone by
Wild geese winging by not landing
Someone’s son bringing home education.


Translator:Sodnom Uzmee
Editor:James Pigg
October 2006

MY MOM (A son’s poem for his mom)

My Mom (A son’s poem for his mom)

Mongolian beautiful princess who bore me, my mom
Lullaby songs she is singing while cuddling me, my mom
Soft white hand raising me up, my mom
Teaching life’s way and educating me, my mom

D. Natsagdorj 1927

Translator:Sodnom Uzmee
Editor:James Pigg
October 2006

MY LITTLE LAMB (A herder boys poem)

My Little Lamb
(A herder boys poem)

My little lamb
With your spotted forehead
Among thousands of sheep
I see you
Coming my way
Baaaah baaaah bleating for me

Shiny pearl white coat
Searching black eye
Among millions of sheep
She is a beauty
Only she and I
Playing around home.

Kneeling at her Moms breast
Sucking at her Moms teat
Jumping into my lap
Cuddling up to me
Bouncing all around playing
Making all the herders happy.

D. Natsagdorj 1933

Translator: Sodnom Uzmee
Editor: James Pigg
October 2006


Best Friends
(To Bayana)

Growing up together
Playing together telling each other secrets
Sharing life helping each other
Understanding each others heart
We are best friends
In fates hand marriage in two different lands
Different places we are living
Between us Atlantic Ocean so wide
Inseparable still we are
That strong is our friendship
We left behind us our lovely families
Gave up our warm home
Our childhood home country
Challenging lives living foreign countries
Same life road we are following
Trusting don’t know before stranger
To them we gave our hearts
Following them we came down to
Their homeland, giving them our lives
Same lives we have
One living great Europe
One living golden America
Each together talking phone
Open feeling, sharing misery
That much we are best friends

Uzmee 9-28-06